Waar komen vluchtelingen vandaan - cijfers en achtergronden

De meeste vluchtelingen die op dit moment (2016) in Nederland aankomen komen uit Syrië, Eritrea, Afdganistan, Irak, Iran en Somalië.

Van de sites van Vluchtelingen Werk en uit het World Report 2015 van Human Rights Watch zetten we wat cijfers en achtergrond informatie op een rijtje

Iran
Sinds de revolutie van 1979 en het afzetten van de sjah is Iran een Islamitische Republiek. Liberale en conservatieve periodes wisselen elkaar af. Het huidige regime is uiterst repressief. Bekeerlingen, homoseksuelen en opposanten lopen gevaar. In 2015 zoeken 1884 Iraniërs bescherming in Nederland. Wereldwijd zijn 76.422 Iraniërs op de vlucht.

Repressive elements within the security and intelligence forces, as well as the judiciary, retained wide powers and continued to be the main perpetrators of rights abuses. Executions, especially for drug-related offenses, increased sharply from previous years. Security and intelligence forces arrested journalists, bloggers, and social media activists, and revolutionary courts handed down heavy sentences against them.

Death Penalty and Torture
Authorities executed at least 830 prisoners by hanging as of November 1, 2015, with almost 700 executed in the first six months of the year. Officials also carried out amputations of limbs for crimes such as theft.
Under Iranian law, many crimes are punishable by death, including some that do not involve violence, such as “insulting the Prophet,” apostasy, same-sex relations, adultery, and drug-related offenses. Convicted drug offenders sentenced after flawed trials in revolutionary courts formed the majority of prisoners executed in 2015.

Afghanistan
In Afghanistan heerst al decennia lang oorlog. Veel Afghanen zijn hun land ontvlucht. Bijna een kwart van de vluchtelingen wereldwijd is afkomstig uit Afghanistan: 2,7 miljoen mensen. Ook nu is het in grote delen van het land erg onveilig, met name voor vrouwen, minderheden en homoseksuelen. In 2015 vragen 2550 Afghanen asiel aan in Nederland.

Fighting between the Taliban and government forces in Afghanistan escalated in 2015, with the Taliban seizing control of Kunduz and holding the city for nearly two weeks before Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), with United States air and ground support, regained control. The Taliban also seized a number of district centers and threatened other provincial capitals. The United Nations deemed nearly half of the country’s provinces as being at high or extreme risk.

The upsurge in violence had devastating consequences for civilians, with suicide bombings, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and targeted attacks by the Taliban and other insurgents causing 70 percent of all civilian casualties. The number of civilians killed during government military operations, particularly ground offensives, increased too.

While both President Ashraf Ghani and Chief Executive Abdullah Abdullah publicly affirmed the government’s commitment to human rights, their National Unity Government (NUG) failed to address longstanding concerns, including violations of women’s rights and attacks on journalists. The government launched an action plan to curb torture and enacted legislation criminalizing the recruitment of child soldiers, but impunity for both continued.

Irak
Irak kent een roerige geschiedenis. Een brute dictatuur, een achtjarige oorlog met buurland Iran en een oorlog met Koeweit. In 2003 valt een internationale troepenmacht Irak binnen in de War on Terror. President Saddam Hoessein wordt afgezet. Eind 2011 verlaat het Amerikaanse leger Irak. In grote delen van het land is de situatie nog steeds erg onveilig. Met name etnische en religieuze minderheden, homoseksuelen en vrouwen hebben te vrezen voor vervolging. In 2015 zoeken 3009 Irakezen bescherming in Nederland. Wereldwijd zijn er 426.114 Irakezen op de vlucht.

Armed conflict between the armed extremist group Islamic State (also known as ISIS) and an array of Kurdish and central Iraqi government forces, pro-government militias, and a United States-led international air campaign dominated the human rights situation in 2015.

According to the United Nations, summary executions, car bombs, assassinations, artillery shelling, and aerial bombardment killed and injured over 20,000 civilians. Pro-government militias carried out assassinations, property destruction, and enforced disappearances. Since June 2014, the conflict has displaced close to 3.2 million Iraqis, and interrupted school for over 3 million children as well as access to medical care, food, and clean water.

Government forces recaptured the area around Tikrit in March and Beiji in October, and Kurdish forces took Sinjar in November, while ISIS took Ramadi on May 17. Ongoing battles for Ramadi, areas north of Tikrit, and in Diyala, Kirkuk, and Niniveh continue to inflict heavy casualties on both sides.

Somalia
Eén van de grootste groepen asielzoekers in Nederland is afkomstig uit Somalië. Veel Somaliërs zijn hun land ontvlucht omdat er al jaren een oorlog woedt. Burgers hebben er dag in dag uit te lijden onder geweld van diverse rebellengroeperingen - onder meer Al Shabaab - en het regeringsleger. Meer dan een miljoen Somaliërs zijn verdreven uit hun huizen en duizenden mensen ontvluchten maandelijks het land. In 2014 zoeken 869 Somaliërs bescherming in Nederland.
(van de site van vluchtelingenwerk)

Somalia’s long-running armed conflict continued to take a heavy toll on civilians in much of south-central Somalia. Warring parties continued to kill, wound, and forcibly displace civilians. Restrictions on humanitarian access exacerbated the human rights and humanitarian crises.

Ongoing political infighting and three government reshuffles in three years, along with political maneuvering around implementation of federalism, detracted from justice and security sector reform progress. Tensions over creation of a new interim regional administration in central Somalia led to open conflict between clan militias and government forces, resulting in abuses against civilians.

The forces of the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM), as well as Ethiopian armed forces, launched a new offensive against the armed Islamist group Al-Shabaab in southern Somalia. While Al-Shabaab lost control of some key towns, it maintains control over large swathes of territory, and many key transport routes. Al-Shabaab carried out targeted attacks on civilians and civilian infrastructure, in the capital, Mogadishu, and other towns under government or allied authority, and increased high-profile attacks on AMISOM facilities. There were credible reports that AMISOM forces killed civilians during operations and in response to Al-Shabaab attacks.

Syria
According to local Syrian groups, as of October 2015, the death toll in the conflict reached more than 250,000 people including over 100,000 civilians. According to local groups, more than 640,000 people live under long-term siege in Syria. The conflict has led to a humanitarian crisis with an estimated 7.6 million internally displaced and 4.2 million refugees in neighboring countries.

Eritrea
De meeste Afrikaanse asielzoekers in Nederland zijn, na Somalië, afkomstig uit Eritrea. Het land kent een van de meest onderdrukkende regimes ter wereld. Kritiek op de regering is verboden en tegenstanders worden gearresteerd. De dienstplicht, die meer dan tien jaar kan duren, is voor velen een reden om te vluchten. Wie het land probeert te ontvluchten loopt kans om aan de grens te worden neergeschoten. In 2014 vragen 3.927 Eritreeërs asiel aan in Nederland. In april en mei vragen opvallend veel Eritreeërs asiel aan: 1.080 en 1.860. In 2015 zijn dat er in totaal 7359.
(van de site van Vluchtelingen werk)

The United Nations High Commission for Refugees reported at the end of 2014 that 416,857 Eritreans have lodged asylum claims or are registered as refugees, over 9 percent of the country’s population. UNHCR released no comprehensive figures for 2015 but reported about 39,000 Eritreans had applied for asylum by October in 44 industrialized countries alone. In October, 10 members of Eritrea’s national soccer team sought asylum in Botswana.

The commission of inquiry concluded that grave human rights violations “incite an ever-increasing number of Eritreans to leave their country.” Based on over 500 interviews, the UN commission found that the Eritrean government engages in “systemic, widespread and gross human rights violations,” and that the abuses occur in the “context of a total lack of rule of law” with the result that it “is not the law that rules Eritreans, but fear.”

After refusing the commission entry into the country, the government protested its findings as not based on first-hand in-country observations. The government has never allowed any UN special mechanism investigators into the country.

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